At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break)

Bob Bennett(a British teacher of Russian)

Svetlana Pavlova(a Russian teacher of English)

B.B. You are an English teacher, aren't you?

S.P. Quite right. I've been teaching English since I graduated from Univer­sity and that was nearly 20 years ago.

B.B. I wonder how long English At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) has been the most popular foreign lan­guage in Russia.

S.P. I think English began to gain popularity right after World War II.

B.B. That's very interesting! And what was the situation before the war?

S.P. I know from my parents who At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) were both school teachers that in pre-war years it was German that was taught in most Soviet schools, some­times French and very rarely English. In general there was a time when the most prestigious foreign language in Russia was French. This can be seen from Tolstoy's novels At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break). Pushkin's Tatiana, by the way, wrote her love letter to Onegin in French, because her Russian wasn't good enough to write such a vitally important message.

B.B. We in Britain don't often try to learn foreign languages. I believe that in this regard we are At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) a bit spoilt, because we are sure that no matter where we find ourselves, there will always be someone who can speak English.

S.P. I'm afraid you're right. We, here in Russia, on the contrary, have always tried to learn languages, though now I find our At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) mother tongue is gain­ing popularity and good progress has been мейд in learning how to teach it.

6. Complete the sentences choosing the words from the boxes. A.

few, a few, quite a few

1. He's got... friends; he's very popular at his college.

2. He's got too At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) ... friends and he often feels lonely.

3. Very ... German engineers could speak Chinese when Фольксваген set
up a factory in Shanghai.

4. ... German engineers and Chinese managers could speak English, so
they were able to communicate in English.

5. There are very ... people who will agree to low-paid jobs.

6. There are ... people who may apply for At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) this job. It's prestigious and well
paid.

7. The meals are awful, but strangely enough, very ... people complain.

8. The meals are awful. No wonder quite ... people complain.

9. The text was easy to translate. There were very ... words I had to look
up in the dictionary.

10. The text only seems easy to At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) translate. There are ... booby-traps in it!

11. Ladies and Gentlemen! Let me say... words about the main advantages
of the new method.

B.

little, a little

1. ... is known about that old civilization!

2. Wait...!

3. I'm afraid, too ... time is left to discuss everything in detail.

4. I'm sorry, you can't At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) stay ... longer.

5. ... was left of that lovely place after the earthquake.

' Put in the correct article a / an or the.

Before you begin reading ... story learn ... few words you might not know. Without it... humour of... story is likely to be lost on you.

... story is about... importance At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) of punctuation [,pAnktju'eiJn]. You must have guessed ... meaning of... word. ... corresponding verb is 'to punctuate' ['рлпк-tjueit]. ... wildlife manual is ... reference book about animals. To toss means to throw. ... mammal is ... animal that feeds its babies with its own milk. Now you can begin reading ... story.

Eats At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break), Shoots & Leaves*

... panda walks into ... cafe. He orders ... sandwich, eats it, then draws ... gun and fires two shots in ... air.

"Why?" asks ... confused waiter, as ... panda makes towards ... exit. ... panda produces ... badly punctuated wildlife manual and tosses it over his shoulder.

"I'm ... panda," he says, at... door. "Look it up At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break)."

... waiter turns to ... relevant entry**and, sure enough, finds ... explanation:

"Panda. Large black-and-white bear-like mammal, native to China. Eats, shoots and leaves."

Can you explain why ... panda took ... gun and fired two shots in ... air?

Do you understand what makes ... story funny? If you At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) don't, you won't even smile after reading it. Well, look at... last sentence carefully. There is ... comma in it, isn't there? ... comma makes ... word shoots ... verb, meaning «стреляет» in Russian. Then ... Russian translation of leaves would be «уходит». You cer­tainly know ... Russian for leaves as a At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) noun, don't you? It's «листья». But you may not know ... meaning of shoots as ... noun. It's ... rare word and you are unlikely to find it in ... small dictionary. So look it up in ... big one. Shoots as ... noun in ... plural means «ростки», «побеги», «веточки». Then ... story At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) will become funny, won't it?

These are the answers. What were the questions?

1. Every pilot and ship's captain has to speak English because it's an
agreed international language of communication in the air and the sea.

2. Many European multi-national companies now use Englishas a
common language.

3. Many At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) important inventions мейд in recent yearshave become an
integral part of modern life.

4. English has been the language of rock and pop music ever since rock
and roll began in America in the 1950s.

Here are some English proverbs. Can you find Russian equivalents?

1. A friend in need is a At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) friend indeed.

2. Rome was not built in a day.

3. Take the bull by the horns.

4. Tastes differ.

5. There is no place like home.

6. A bird in the hands is worth two in the bush.

7. Every medal has two sides.

8. Speech is silver, silence is gold.

9. The best is often the At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) enemy of the good.

Оборот 'be likely (unlikely) + infinitivewith to'выражает предполо­жение в отношении грядущего. Вероятные варианты перевода на российский язык: be likely to...- возможно, вероятнее всего, похоже на то, что... + рус­ский глагол в дальнейшем времени

be unlikely to...- навряд ли, вероятнее всего не, не похоже на At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) то, что... + + российский глагол в дальнейшем времени Не is likely to be late. - Он, вероятнее всего, запоздает. The weather is unlikely to change. - Навряд ли погода поменяется.

Which of the existing languages is most likely to take over the status of an international language? This table will help you At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) to make your predictions.

Language (country) Reasons
Spanish (Spain) economic
Italian (Italy) political
French (France) numerical
German (Germany) military
Danish (Denmark) linguistic
Dutch (Holland) sociological
American English (USA) cultural
British English (Great Britain) demographic
Russian (Russia) technological
Ukrainian (Ukraine) geographical
Chinese (China) ecological
Japanese(Japan)
Esperanto

Example In my opinion Chinese At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) is likely to take over as a world language for numerical reasons.

I think English is likely to preserve its status for economic and poli­tical reasons.

1. Translate the following into English using 'be likely (unlikely)'.

1. Погода навряд ли поменяется.

2. Погода, вероятнее всего, поменяется к наилучшему.

3. Я At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break), вероятнее всего, поеду на юг летом.

4. Эта пьеса навряд ли будет иметь фуррор.

12. Fill in the spaces with prepositions from the box. Discuss part В in class. A.

in, on, between, over, by, of, at

1. Children under 14 must be accompanied ... an adult.

2. He is very interested ... modern art. He's got a At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) lot of books ... art at
home.

3. The heroine of the book was forced to choose ... happiness and duty.

4. Do you agree that wood has advantages ... plastic?

5. Children learn ... a different rate.

6. We can rely ... him. He always keeps his promise.

7. That happened ... my first day at school.

8. He said that At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) on hearing that he felt free ... any obligations.

B.

of, for, in, on, up, by, out, to

If you have decided, ... some reason or another, to learn a foreign lan­guage, you must first ... all have a very clear idea ... what you need it ... . If it is a matter ... a At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) two-week tourist trip, then it isn't worth spending your time and effort trying to learn grammar and looking ... the words you want to know ... the dictionary. All you need is a reliable phrase-book (Italian-Russian, French-Russian, etc.), depending ... the country you are going to At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) visit. Choose the situations you are most likely to find yourself..., and learn the necessary phrases, practising ... loud, of course. Ideally, your phrase-book should be accompanied ... a disc ... which these phrases are recorded ... a native speaker... the language you are interested .... The disc will help you At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) to avoid mispronunciation and not to be baffled ... the spelling. Believe it or not, you are most unlikely to forget the phrases you have learnt ... this way. They will remain ... your long-term memory ... a long time.

A much more difficult thing is learning to understand the people you might want At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) to talk ... . In all probability, you won't be able to learn that before your tourist trip.

An absolutely different method is unavoidable if you need a foreign language ... your profession. ... this case you should be prepared ... a course that will, probably, take not less than a year At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break), or even longer. A modern course ... this type usually comprises course books, workbooks and is accompanied ... a lot... taped material. It would be most misleading to assert that it will be easy, but it's very interesting, indeed, and is, no doubt, worth trying.

. A. These words are jumbled At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break). Put them in the correct order.

1. has / been / expanding / economy / That / country's / in / the / last /
few / years / rapidly / very.

2. some / entertainment / was / followed / The / by / meeting.

3. over / gave / The / dominance / numerical / of / took / part / in /
the / voting / those / who / the / ruling / party / an / the / advantage /
opposition / actually / to.

4. not At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) / often / are / used / Proverbs / speech / writing / or / in /
ordinary.

5. was / to emerge / from / his / limousine / Director / General / the /
first / The.

Translate into English, paying special attention to the word order.

1. Численное приемущество тех, кто практически принял роль
в голосовании, отдало преимущество правящей партии над оппози­
цией.

2. Первым появился из At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) собственного лимузина генеральный директор.

3. За собранием последовал концерт.

4. В течение последних пары лет экономика этой страны раз­
вивалась очень стремительно.

5. В обыкновенной (устной) речи либо письме пословицы употребляются
изредка.

14. Here are two reports мейд by a British professor of linguistics and his Russian colleague during a discussion of relevant At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) problems at Moscow University. You are an interpreter and have to translate the first report into Russian and the other into English. (It's a paid job!)

1. It is sometimes thought that English has achieved its worldwide status
because of its linguistic features. Some people assert that it is a more logical
or At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) more beautiful language than others, simpler in grammatical structure, or
larger in vocabulary. This kind of reasoning is an example of naive linguistic
thinking: there are no objective standards of logic or beauty in comparing
different languages, and questions of phonetic, grammatical, or lexical
complexity can never be given simple answers. For example, English At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) may not
have many inflectional endings (which is what most people are thinking of
when they talk about English as grammatically 'simple'), but it has a highly
complex syntax; and the number of endings has nothing to do with the
language being used worldwide (as can be seen from the former success of
Latin At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break)). Languages rise and fall as world languages for many kinds of reasons -
political, economic, social, religious, literary - but linguistic reasons do not
rank highly among them.

2. ...И все таки я думаю, что британский язык, скорее всего, со­
хранит собственный статус интернационального языка на наиблежайшие 100 лет либо
около того. На данный момент At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) мне бы хотелось сказать несколько слов об одной
его черте, которая пока не упоминалась. Он лаконичен. До этого
всего, в нем огромное количество маленьких слов. Есть, естественно, и длинноватые, та­
кие, как, 'consistency', 'legislation1, 'financial', 'unequal', 'misinterpre­
tation', и многие другие, но в обыденных ситуациях численное превос­
ходство маленьких слов над At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) длинноватыми совсем ясно. Это большущее
преимущество в ежедневных дискуссиях, когда вы вынуждены огласить
почти все, к тому же ясно и точно, а времени у вас не достаточно. К примеру,
в переговорах меж пилотами 2-ух самолетов в небе либо капитанами

2-ух судов в море. Вот почему британский стал согласованным языком общения для At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) большинства интернациональных авиалиний и служб чрез­вычайных ситуаций.

При всех собственных противных «ловушках» британский синтаксис позво­ляет обойтись одним-двумя словами там, где в других языках вам понадо­бится несколько слов, может быть, даже целое предложение.

Постарайтесь перевести 'fitness' либо 'PR officer' на российский язык, и вы получите чего At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break)-нибудть вроде «хорошая физическая форма» и «сотрудник, отвечающий за связи с общественностью». Как перевести 'talk-show'? Вы­ход уже найден - слово было просто взято.

Если вы сравните английскую книжку (по-настоящему неплохую, конеч­но) с ее русским переводом (тоже по-настоящему неплохим), вы увидите, что последний еще толще. Книжка At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break) толще! Почему? Просто задумайтесь об этом. Это любопытно.

Все это не означает, но, что британский язык превосходит все другие языки либо что его литература является непревзойденной нигде в мире. И все таки приходится признать, что, к наилучшему либо к худшему, ан­глийский язык стал более «глобальным» языком нынешнего денька At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break). Сохранит ли он этот статус в дальнейшем? Прогнозы делать тяжело!

5. Read the poem. You needn't learn the new words. They are just an illus­tration of the proverbial inconsistency of English spelling.

New Words

tough[t\f] adj жесткий

bough[bau] л сук, ветка, ветвь

cough[kpf] n, v кашель, кашлять

dough At an International Conference of Language Teachers (during the break)[ёэи] л тесто

hiccough(= hiccup) [тпклр] п, v икота, икать

thorough['влгэ] adj основательный, кропотливый

beware[bi'wea] v остерегаться

beard[biad] л борода

threat[Gret] n угроза

suite[swi:t] n 1) муз. сюита

2) номер люкс (в гостинице)

3)гарнитур debt[det] л долг moth[ггю9] п моль, мотылек bear[Ьеэ] л медведь pear[реэ] л груша



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